Current state of FP fragmentation?

How much fragmentation is there currently between zio and cats? Does it look like the two ecosystems might converge any time soon?

Personal opinion: I think that’s unlikely. If anything, ZIO is moving away from the rest of the Scala ecosystem, and building up an increasingly comprehensive alternate one that fits the ZIO way of doing things.

(Context: I personally prefer Typelevel, but use ZIO at work, so I see a fair amount of both. But I’m certainly no sort of authority.)

Mind, they’re not entirely in tension: we use both Cats proper and ZIO at work, and there’s some benefit to that. But the idioms of ZIO and cats-effect are pretty different, and it doesn’t look likely to me that those are going to merge any time in the foreseeable future – they are two valid but distinctly different approaches, with different priorities.


On top of that note that ZIO Prelude is their alternative to cats proper, just like ZIO for IO and ZStream for fs2, arguably there also Izumi and Distage and now Quill.

So no, I also don’t think they are not going to converge; which is fine really just like Akka, LiHaoyi, and other ecosystems have always existed.